RED ALERT: THE STUART BLOODLINE IS THE HERODIAN LINE

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RED ALERT: THE STUART BLOODLINE IS THE HERODIAN LINE

Post by zone on Sat Mar 26, 2011 6:55 pm

nutshell:


http://www.jesus-messiah.com/prophecy/rev-13.html

The ten horn beast kingdom is mentioned in Daniel 7:7 as being the fourth beast in his vision. That fourth beast is the Roman empire without question. It is a fact the Catholic Church took on the identity of the Roman Empire and today papal Rome carries by inheritance any and all rebuke and judgment of God against Rome. Papal Rome will always be in league with the antichrist in Israel. The future antichrist to come to Jerusalem will have Papal blessings and authority. The ten horns then are understood to be ten kings, rulers, or emperors that would rule during the time of the Messiah. We start the first of the ten with Caesar Augustus and indeed he is mentioned with the birth of Jesus. He is the first horn or power of the fourth beast that has to do with the Messianic fulfillment. If we then count the next ten emperors we end up with Titus who destroyed the temple and Jerusalem in fulfillment of the prophecy of Jesus in Matthew 24.


The seven heads are not mentioned in Daniel and are first found in Revelation 12:3 and 13:1. These seven must reign at the same time of the fourth beast and the ten horns or emperors. The beast with seven heads and ten horns is not an endtime event and it is NOT THE ROMAN EMPIRE REVIVED! The second beast that comes up AFTER the first beast ends is the endtime event. The second beast is not the European Common Market because there are more than ten nations in that federation. The Seven heads are not the seven hills of Rome. The seven heads are Jerusalem which we will now prove.


The focus of the metal-man image and the revealing of the four beasts is to reveal the events of the nations that lead up to the coming of the Messiah and the destruction of the image by the stone hewn out of the mountain that filled the whole earth. That stone is the Church as the Kingdom of God. This is not a millennial fulfillment but a fulfillment of what happened at Calvary. The stone taken out of the mountain is the Church Kingdom born out of Calvary's sacrifice.


We can see then that the seven heads previously mentioned must have connection with Israel as that is the focus of the Messianic fulfillment. These seven agree exactly with the Herods. During the time of the reign of the ten horns in Rome there reigned in Israel seven Herods under that power. These were the antichrist forces in world power at the time of Jesus and the Apostles up to 70AD.


A separate seven heads is revealed in Revelation 17:9 and are identified as the seven mountains where the whore sitteth. This is further identified as the seven hills of Jerusalem and called the *great city* where also our Lord was crucified. The witchcraft system of Kabbalah within paganized Judaism (Talmudism), is called Mystery Babylon the Great. Because it came out of Babylon by the Pharisees and other occult mystics. One of these seven heads or hills had a wound by a sword, this head or hill is Mount Moriah (the temple mount), and the sword was the war of Titus that destroyed it in fulfillment of the prophecy of Jesus in Matthew 24. Jerusalem is the location of the hill where the great whore sitteth, Rome or Catholicism is not the great whore. Rome is not destroyed in the endtime, it is Jerusalem and the temple mount that are destroyed by the battle of Armageddon. The deadly wound of the head or hill that will be healed is Mount Moriah will be resurrected back from the dead. This points to a revived Judaism religion upon the temple mount. This angers God after all, he had the place destroyed in 70AD as an eternal sign that temple and religion was abolished and replaced forever by the New Testament Church. The revival of the temple mount and the Talmudic religion will be the endtime work of the antichrist and his false prophet. Alleged *contact* with God will be claimed as the antichrist urges his false prophet to call fire down upon animal sacrifices in the new temple. The world will be deceived that these antichrist have made re-contact with God. Those who preach that this alleged re-contact with God is really the power of the devil, and the man claiming to be the Messiah is the antichrist, will be hated of all nations for the name sake of Jesus as the ONLY Messiah. Then, fathers and mothers will betray their children unto death and children will betray their fathers and mothers to death. Ministers will betray Ministers, Churches will betray Churches, religious organizations will betray independents, and the world will be covered in the blood of those slain for the testimony of the name and salvation of Jesus. There will be great persecution from friends and relatives, but the elect of God, his true Israel, will be delivered.


In Revelation 13 the first beast system of the ten and the seven are separated by an unknown amount of time from the the second beast that comes upon the earth in the endtime. The second beast is the antichrist system of the endtime. It will last 42 months or three and one half years. Tribulation will only be three and one half years long. But a great destruction from the Lord Jesus will rain upon the earth because of this hatred and bigotry against the followers of the Lamb and the Lamb shall overcome them (Rev 17:14). The revived Judaism will birth out of the midst her antichrist in Jerusalem. The head or hill that had the wound by the sword and was dead will be revived. Rome will support this antichrist and assist in deceiving millions to worship this revived religious system. Rome will be destroyed along with other nations at the appearance of the Lord, in flaming fire, taking vengeance on them that know not God and who obeyed not the Truth.


The seven hills identify Jerusalem not Rome: Jerusalem was a large city spreading outside the walls and covering the seven hills there during the time of Jesus and the Apostles: 1.) Mount Gared; 2.) Mount Goath; 3.) Mount Acra; 4.) Mount Bezetha; 5.) Mount Moriah; 6.) Mount Ophel; 7.) Mount Zion. For what ever reason, and by what ever hands and manipulation, Mt. Gared, Mt. Goath, Mt Acra, and Mt. Bezetha have been deleted from nearly all maps of Jerusalem. To still identify Jerusalem as the city of Revelation 17:9, other scholars replaced these with four other mountains: Mt. of Olives, Mt. Of Offence, Mount of Evil Counsel, and Mount Calvary. In either case, Jerusalme is the city of the seven mountains in Rev. 17:9. While these were not all within the walled city, all seven hills were nevertheless spoke of as being at Jerusalem and Jerusalem. The original Jerusalem was only upon the small hill of Zion. The walls were enlarged to enclose also the temple mount by Solomon. Later the walls were enlarged again to include Mount Ophel. Then the city limits was enlarged again and covered the seven hills.


Contrary to dispensational claims, the endtime focus is not on Rome as a city nor upon the Catholic Church. It is upon Israel, Jerusalem, the temple mount, the Jewish antichrist, the Jewish false prophet, and the Jews and Gentiles who will participate in this revival. Will Rome play a decisive role in the endtime? Yes! Rome will validate the antichrist and in fact be a supporter of the antichrist regime. Rome signed a peace treaty with Israel on December 30, 1993. This sealed Rome's agreement to support Israel and she has not failed to do so. She has sent out letters and decrees that Israel and Jerusalem together with all modern Jews are not to be accused for the crucifixion of Jesus, and not to be converted to Jesus. Rome has made the decree that Jews can be saved by keeping the Law and observing animal sacrifices. These very decrees validate antichrist when he appears. Catholics and Protestants will be the agents of the Jerusalem antichrist to kill millions. Come out of them and her *my people.* Flee from *ALL*Religious organizations right this very moment. Never go back. Have Church in your home or with others in small Church groups.


The endtime focus is upon antichrist in Israel who will be Jewish. A false prophet will arise and he will certify the antichrist in the role of Elijah the Prophet. This public coronation will begin a world-wide nightmare of persecution and hatred against the name of Jesus and the endtime Church. It will be heralded world-wide that the Jews have made RE-CONTACT with God as they call fire from heaven down upon the temple mount on renewed animal sacrifices. The deceived world will go mad and worship the antichrist and millions will deny Jesus and go back to practice of the Law, Pharisee-Talmudic style. But, the true Saints shall not be forsaken nor forgotten. Yes, some may die for their faith. But if they are killed by Jew or Gentile, their soul will fly to the temple mount and there in spirit under the altar will cry for vengeance upon Israel, the temple mount, and upon Gentile nations and persecutors until the day of vengeance, ...the day of the Lord.


We who have confessed Jesus as the Messiah are in this to endure UNTIL the end! Not the beginning, not the middle, not prewrath, but to the END! The Lord Jesus will unleash the seven seals, the seven trumpets, and the seven vials upon the antichrist in Israel, Jerusalem, and around the world. These judgments are against the antichrist and *for* the protection of the Saints, not their destruction or God's wrath upon them. Do not fear going through the tribulation, the Lord will reward you richly.



NOW.

IN ORDER FOR THIS PROPHECY TO HAVE AN ENDTIME FULFILLMENT, ROME HAS TO CONTINUE (WHICH SHE DID VIA THE VATICAN....AND THE LINE OF HEROD MUST PRODUCE AN EIGTH HEROD (WHO IS OF THE SEVEN), and who will be the SON OF PERDITION OF 2 THESS 2, and will go into perdition.:

I HAVE FOUND THAT THE HOUSE OF STUART IS THE HERODIAN LINE.

THESE ARE THOSE SAY THEY ARE JEWS, AND ARE NOT BUT DO LIE.


House of Stuart

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



The House of Stuart, also known as the House of Stewart, is a European royal house. Founded by Robert II of Scotland, the Stewarts first became monarchs of the Kingdom of Scotland during the late 14th century. Their direct ancestors (from Brittany) had held the title High Steward of Scotland since the 12th century, after arriving by way of Norman England. The dynasty inherited further territory by the 17th century which covered the entire British Isles, including the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Ireland, also upholding a claim to the Kingdom of France.




Rothschild family

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia




The Rothschild family (known as The House of Rothschild,[1] or more simply as the Rothschilds) is a European family of German Jewish origin that established European banking and finance houses from the late eighteenth century. Five lines of the Austrian branch of the family were elevated into the Austrian nobility, being given hereditary baronies of the Habsburg Empire by Emperor Francis II in 1816. The British branch of the family was elevated into the British nobility at the request of Queen Victoria.[2][3] It has been argued that during the 19th century, the family possessed by far the largest private fortune in the world, and by far the largest fortune in modern world history.[3][4][5]







Following a royal and aristocratic technique, which also was copied later by business dynasties such as the Du Pont family,[9] Mayer Rothschild successfully kept the fortune in the family with carefully arranged marriages, including between first or second cousins, although by the later 19th century, almost all Rothschilds had started to marry outside the family, usually into the aristocracy or other financial dynasties.[9] His sons were:


The Rothschild coat of arms contains a clenched fist with five arrows symbolizing the five sons of Mayer Rothschild, a reference to Psalm 127: "Like arrows in the hands of a warrior". The family motto appears below the shield, in Latin, Concordia, Integritas, Industria, (Harmony, Integrity, Industry).[10] The German family name means "Red Shield". Today, it would be spelled "Rotschild", and is pronounced approximately ROT-shillt in German, not wroth(s)-child as it is in English.
Families by country:

Jewish Identity and Positions on Zionism
Jewish solidarity in the family was not homogeneous. Some Rothschilds were supporters of Zionism, while other members of the family opposed the creation of the Jewish state. Some believed it would encourage anti-Semites to question the existing national identities of assimilated Jews around the rest of the world.[18] In 1917 Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild was the addressee of the Balfour Declaration to the Zionist Federation,[22] which committed the British government to the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people. Later, Lord Victor Rothschild was against granting asylum or even help to Jewish refugees during the Holocaust.[18]

After the death of James Jacob de Rothschild in 1868, Alphonse Rothschild, his oldest son, who took over the management of the family bank, was the most active in support for Eretz Israel.[23] The Rothschild family archives show that during the 1870s the family contributed nearly 500,000 francs per year on behalf of Eastern Jewry to the Alliance Israélite Universelle.[24] Baron Edmond James de Rothschild, James Jacob de Rothschild's youngest son was a patron of the first settlement in Palestine at Rishon-LeZion, and bought from Ottoman landlords parts of the land which now makes up present-day Israel. In 1924, he established the Palestine Jewish Colonization Association (PICA), which acquired more than 125,000 acres (22,36 km²) of land and set up business ventures.[25] In Tel Aviv, he has a road, Rothschild Boulevard, named after him as well as various localities throughout Israel which he assisted in founding including Metulla, Zikhron Ya'akov, Rishon Lezion, and Rosh Pina. A park in Boulogne-Billancourt, Paris, the Parc Edmond de Rothschild (Edmond de Rothschild Park) is also named after its founder.[26] The Rothschilds also played a significant part in the funding of Israel's governmental infrastructure. James A. de Rothschild financed the Knesset building as a gift to the State of Israel[27] and the Supreme Court of Israel building was donated to Israel by Dorothy de Rothschild.[28] Outside the President's Chamber is displayed the letter Mrs. Rothschild wrote to the then current Prime Minister Shimon Peres expressing her intention to donate a new building for the Supreme Court.[29]

Interviewed by Haaretz in 2010, Baron Benjamin Rothschild, a Swiss-based member of the banking family, said that he supported the peace process: "I understand that it is a complicated business, mainly because of the fanatics and extremists - and I am talking about both sides. I think you have fanatics in Israel... In general I am not in contact with politicians. I spoke once with Netanyahu. I met once with an Israeli finance minister, but the less I mingle with politicians the better I feel." On the subject of religious identity, he stated that he held an open-minded attitude: "We do business with all kinds of countries, including Arab countries[...] My oldest daughter's boyfriend is a Saudi. He is a great guy and if she will want to marry him, she can."[30]


CONT......
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ROTHSCHILD-CAESAREA FOUNDATION

Post by zone on Sat Mar 26, 2011 7:02 pm

HEROD AND CAESAR TOGETHER AS ALWAYS - Z


http://www.caesarea.com/sites/site_e.aspx?mid=20



Founded in 1962 by Baron Edmond de Rothschild, the Rothschild-Caesarea Foundation (renamed the Caesarea Edmond Benjamin de Rothschild Foundation in the early 1990's) is a private company that adheres to its namesake's principals and its founder's guiding philosophy, which decreed the development of Caesarea as a unique community in Israel and the donation of substantial funds to worthwhile organizations and programs in Israel, primarily ones that promote higher education.


The development of Caesarea is entrusted to the Foundation's wholly-owned subsidiary, the Caesarea Edmond Benjamin de Rothschild Development Corporation Ltd. (CDC). The CDC's efforts are directed at development and improvement of the Foundation's lands for residential and industrial purposes, as well as for tourism. Activities include: development of exclusive life-style
residential areas; provision of high level services and maintenance that preserve the community's unique qualities; development of the industrial and business park in Caesarea, with the goal of becoming the area's dominant source of employment and center of trade; development of the
Archeological National Garden and surrounding areas as a tourist center; and, management of Israel's first and most renowned Golf Club, situated on Caesarea lands.

The Foundation itself is dedicated to the promotion and advancement of the Israeli community, principally through support of higher education institutions and programs. The Foundation also provides funding for other education, and cultural projects that benefit the citizens of Israel.

In an effort to maximize the impact of the Foundation's resources, the majority of contributed funds are directed towards the Initiatives Program, in essence proactive responses to issues and institutions toward which the Rothschild-Caesarea Foundation has a special concern and commitment.
To a lesser extent, the Foundation accepts and considers grant requests from organizations for programs that fall within its areas of interest.


Baron Edmond Benjamin de Rothschild, also known as the "well-known benefactor" served a unique role in the history of the Jewish people.
He was one person whose good deeds encompassed all facets of the settlement in
Israel. The Baron, also known to the pioneers as the "father of the settlement", was a practical dreamer and nation builder who dedicated himself to the settlement, industrialization, scientific advancement, education and welfare of this emerging nation.
Baron Edmond de Rothschild, grandson of the "well-known benefactor", managed the family's banks, wineries, art collections, and numerous other business endeavors. But he was also a very committed Zionist. Where his grandfather made his mark in the purchase and settlement of lands, Baron Edmond is remembered for his contribution to the industrialization of Israel and his generous contributions to various education and cultural institutions. These two great men's descendants, management companies and the Rothschild-Caesarea Foundation continue to fulfill their legacies.
The Rothschild-Caesarea Foundation's goal is to adhere to its founder's principal concerns:
• Development of Caesarea as a unique settlement of high environmental and living conditions, a
regional industrial center and a national tourism center that benefits from the wonder of the Old
City of Caesarea and its magnificent coastlines.
• Contribution of a portion of the income derived from the development of Caesarea
to deserving organizations and programs that advance education, primarily higher education
in the State of Israel.
In accordance with Baron Edmond de Rothschild's wishes, the Foundation's wholly-owned subsidiary, the Caesarea Edmond Benjamin de Rothschild Development Corporation Ltd. (CDC), is responsible for development and improvement of the Foundation's lands for residential and industrial purposes, as well as for the benefit of tourism.
Activities include:
development of exclusive life-style residential areas; provision of high level
services and maintenance that preserve the community's unique qualities; development of the industrial and business park in Caesarea, with the goal of becoming the area's dominant source of employment and center of trade; development of the Archeological National Garden and surrounding areas as a tourist center; and, management of Israel's first and most renowned Golf Club, situated on Caesarea lands.

The Foundation itself is responsible for the prudent investment of resources received from the CDC. From a philanthropic perspective, the Foundation is committed to the promotion and advancement of the Israeli community, principally through support of higher education institutions and programs. The Foundation also provides funding for other education, and cultural projects that benefit the citizens of Israel.
The philosophies and outlooks of Baron Edmond Benjamin de Rothschild and his
grandson, Baron Edmond de Rothschild, guide the Foundation's grantmaking program and modus operandi.
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Re: RED ALERT: THE STUART BLOODLINE IS THE HERODIAN LINE

Post by zone on Sat Mar 26, 2011 7:05 pm


Herod the Great

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herod_the_Great



Herod (Hebrew: הוֹרְדוֹס‎, Hordos, Greek: Ἡρῴδης, Hērōidēs), also known as Herod I or Herod the Great (born 73 or 74 BCE, died 4 BCE in Jericho,[1][2][3][4][5] according to one writer, 1 BCE[6]), was a client king of Israel.[7] He was described as "a madman who murdered his own family and a great many rabbis."[8] He is also known for his colossal building projects in Jerusalem and elsewhere, including the rebuilding of the Second Temple in Jerusalem (sometimes referred to as Herod's Temple) and the construction of the port at Caesarea Maritima. Important details of his biography are gleaned from the works of the 1st century CE Roman-Jewish historian Josephus Flavius.
Herod's son Herod Archelaus was made ethnarch of Judea, Samaria, and Idumea (biblical Edom) from 4 BCE to 6 CE, known as the tetrarchy of Judea. He was judged incompetent by the Roman emperor Augustus who then made Herod's other son Herod Antipas ruler of Galilee from 6 CE – 39 CE and combined Samaria, Judea proper and Idumea into Iudaea province[9] under rule of a prefect.

Herod was born around 74 BCE in southern Judea.[10][11] He was the second son of Antipater the Idumaean, a high-ranked official under Ethnarch Hyrcanus II, and Cypros, a Nabatean. Herod was a practicing Jew as the Edomites and many Nabateans had been converted to Judaism by the Hasmoneans.[12] A loyal supporter of Hyrcanus II, Antipater appointed Herod governor of Galilee at 25, and his elder brother, Phasael, governor of Jerusalem. He enjoyed the backing of Rome but his excessive brutality was condemned by the Sanhedrin.

In 43 BCE, following the chaos caused by Antipater offering financial support to Caesar's murderers, Antipater was poisoned. Herod, backed by the Roman Army, executed his father's murderer.

After the battle of Philippi towards the end of 42 BCE, he convinced Mark Antony and Octavian that his father had been forced to help Caesar's murderers. After Antony marched into Asia, Herod was named tetrarch of Galilee by the Romans.

However, as Herod's family had converted to Judaism, his religious commitment had come into question by some elements of Jewish society[citation needed].

When the Maccabean John Hyrcanus conquered the region of Idumaea (the Edom of the Hebrew Bible) in 140–130 BCE, he required all Idumaeans to obey Jewish law or to leave; most Idumaeans thus converted to Judaism, which meant that they had to be circumcised.[13] While King Herod publicly identified himself as a Jew and was considered as such by some,[14] this religious identification was undermined by the decadent lifestyle of the Herodians, which would have earned them the antipathy of observant Jews.[15]
Two years later Antigonus, Hyrcanus' nephew, took the throne from his uncle with the help of the Parthians. Herod fled to Rome to plead with the Romans to restore him to power. There he was elected "King of the Jews" by the Roman Senate.[16] Josephus puts this in the year of the consulship of Calvinus and Pollio (40 BCE), but Appian places it in 39 BCE.[11] Herod went back to Israel to win his kingdom from Antigonus and at the same time he married the teenage niece of Antigonus, Mariamne (known as Mariamne I), in an attempt to secure a claim to the throne and gain some Jewish favor. However, Herod already had a wife, Doris, and a three-year-old son, Antipater, and chose therefore to banish Doris and her child.

Three years later, Herod and the Romans finally captured Jerusalem and executed Antigonus. Herod took the role as sole ruler of Judea and the title of basileus (Gr. Βασιλευς, king) for himself, ushering in the Herodian Dynasty and ending the Hasmonean Dynasty. Josephus reports this as being in the year of the consulship of Agrippa and Gallus (37 BCE), but also says that it was exactly 27 years after Jerusalem fell to Pompey, which would indicate 36 BCE. (Cassius Dio also reports that in 37 "the Romans accomplished nothing worthy of note" in the area.[17]) According to Josephus, he ruled for 37 years, 34 years of them after capturing Jerusalem
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Re: RED ALERT: THE STUART BLOODLINE IS THE HERODIAN LINE

Post by zone on Sat Mar 26, 2011 7:09 pm

Caesarea
By Jacqueline Schaalje
A first time visitor to Caesarea may get a surprise that so little seems left of the city's great history. Herod's harbour, once the biggest harbour in the entire old world, is now a baby-blue lagoon where noisy children bathe in the summer. Crusader warehouses turned into restaurants on the quay feed Israel's new rich. Outside the city hippie teenagers sit on the beach next to the Roman aqueduct, blowing smoke through the arches.


Apart from Caesarea's big monuments; the aqueduct, the theatre and the imposing city walls, what strikes the eye is utter wasteland. Strangely enough, the emptiness is guarded by fences. What, the innocent day-visitor will think, I hope it's not a security check again, what possible harm can a terrorist do here? Here lie some nice marble columns but the rest looks like a bomb has hit the place already. If the visitor has heard about the concerts which are held in Caesarea in the evening then he may think that the fences have something to do with it. This is correct.


Archaeologists, too, are behind lock and key. Sometimes certain areas of the site are inaccessible, when archaeologists are performing their mysterious digging. Until now only one area has been dug up rather extensively, located on a platform commanding the harbour, where Herod's temple stood; it was dedicated to the Roman emperor August. Later the stones of the temple were used to build a church. After that, Sultan Baybars used it as an observation post after he razed the town.


Since its inauguration by Herod in the first Century BCE the sea level gradually went up, and the original harbour structures collapsed through earthquakes. Today, underwater archaeology, which is executed by divers, tries to unravel the technique with which Herod's architects used to construct the completely artificial harbour.


Long history

The location that Ceaserea was built upon was originally a deserted Phoenician port called Strabo's Tower, of which some ruins exist.

After King Herod acquired it, Caesarea became the capital of Judaea.

After 6 BCE, when the country had become a Roman province, Roman prefects, or procurators kept the government seat here. One of these governors, the cruel Felix, kept Paul imprisoned in Caesarea for two years, upon charges of heresy, until he was sent to trial in Rome.


Herod, builder of Caesarea

Caesarea is most commonly associated with Herod. King Herod the Great (37-4 BCE) acquired the site as a present for his loyalty to the Roman Emperor August. Herod set out to build the city of Caesarea (called after Caesar) on a central strategic location. Herod set out to construct a harbour to rival the ones of Jaffa (Yafo) and Acre (Akko), in which he succeeded. Catering for the trade from the Far East to Rome and Greece, Caesarea became the largest harbour in the Mediterranean.


Revenues of the harbour were used for Herod's extensive building projects in other cities. The king, seeking consciously to associate with Rome, set out expressly to design his own capital after Greek/Roman examples. Although he was not the first to introduce the style, his aqueduct and theatre are the first in the Near East. Caesarea included several theatres, swimming pools and baths, Herod's palace and an esplanade with huge statues at the end of the piers stretching into the sea.



Even though Herod was not an observant Jew, his sensitivity for the Jewish religion is shown in the fact that he only built pagan temples dedicated to Caesar and Roman gods outside Jerusalem; the temple in Caesarea dedicated to August is an example of this. His most famous building project is the Second Temple in Jerusalem.



A description of both Caesarea's buildings and harbour is found in Josephus's The Jewish War (Book I, 408-415). Recent digs have largely confirmed his description of a splendid city in white stone (quarried from nearby hills). Josephus's knowledge that huge stone blocks were piled into the sea to lay the harbour's foundations also proved to be correct.


Modern engineering still marvels at the technique which Herod used to build the harbour. It seems certain that Herod brought Roman architects and engineers, whose methods are described in the first book on this subject, by Vetruvius, Herod's contemporary. Still some features of the harbour are unexplained; as in classical times as now, harbours are preferably built on positions where already a natural harbour or a bay exist.


Recent excavations of the underwater area have shed more light on the kind of stones that were used. The blocks which formed the basin floor were hollow, and had containers of wood. To prevent leaking through the sea bottom a special cement was used which held the inside stone rubble together. The "secret" ingredient of the cement was pozzolana, volcanic ash from Italy.


Another investigation turns around how the ocean floor could have been built. Experts think that the blocks for the floor must have been dropped from artificial islands. For this a lull in the sea movements had to be created. Walls were constructed as breakwaters; interestingly here the same technique was used as with the walls of Herod's Second Temple in Jerusalem. Large hewn or ashlar stones were piled without the aid of cement. The "Western Walls" of underwater Caesarea do not stand anymore however, as they all tumbled down.


Some scientists believe that the breakwater walls formed an intricate system of sluicing whereby the power of the sea was weakened, but how this functioned is not known yet. What seems certain is that the earthquake of 130 BCE pushed the harbour floor up, whereby the breakwaters came to lie just under the water surface. The result of this is 17 shipwrecks lying on the ocean floor, dating until the 5th Century when the harbour finally came into disuse. The shipwrecks are as yet largely unexplored.


Caesarea stayed prosperous also after the harbour had been heavily damaged through the earthquake in 130 BCE. The harbour still stayed in use, and the town made money by trading. Jews and Christians remained in the city, of which witness the erection of the church on top of the temple area, and a synagogue in another part.


Other Herodian remains in the city include parts of his palace (a pool) on a point next to the harbour, and on the platform the temple of August of which the foundations were excavated during recent digs. In the summer of 1999, excavations of stucco were found from one of the columns of the Herodian temple. It is the first find from the original temple.


Although some later additions were made, the theatre used for the Caesarea concerts is largely Herod's. In his amphitheatre horse races were held, until the bigger hippodrome was erected in the second Century BCE. In the amphitheatre recently the longest frescoes (over 100 meters) found in Israel were uncovered. They show animals and floral motives, and are not published yet.

http://www.jewishmag.com/25mag/cesaria/cesaria.htm
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