Operation Cloverleaf and other evils

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Re: Operation Cloverleaf and other evils

Post by zone on Thu May 03, 2012 10:11 pm

Does an infrasonic acoustic shock wave resonance of the manganese 3 loaded/copper depleted prion protein initiate the pathogenesis of TSE?


Purdey M.
SourceElworthy, Taunton, Somerset, UK. TSEpurdey@aol.com

Abstract
Intensive exposures to natural and artificial sources of infrasonic acoustic shock (tectonic disturbances, supersonic aeroplanes, etc.) have been observed in ecosystems supporting mammalian populations that are blighted by clusters of traditional and new variant strains of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE).....


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....encephalopathy - wiki
In some contexts it refers to permanent (or degenerative)[2] brain injury, and in others it is reversible. It can be due to direct injury to the brain, or illness remote from the brain. In medical terms it can refer to a wide variety of brain disorders with very different etiologies, prognoses and implications. For example, prion diseases, all of which cause transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, are invariably fatal, but other encephalopathies are reversible and can be caused by nutritional deficiencies, toxins, and several other causes.

invariably fatal
invariably fatal
invariably fatal

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....But TSEs will only emerge in those 'infrasound-rich' environments which are simultaneously influenced by eco-factors that induce a high manganese (Mn)/low copper (Cu)-zinc (Zn) ratio in brains of local mammalian populations. Since cellular prion protein (PrPc) is a cupro-protein expressed throughout the circadian mediated pathways of the body, it is proposed that PrP's Cu component performs a role in the conduction and distribution of endogenous electromagnetic energy; energy that has been transduced from incoming ultraviolet, acoustic, geomagnetic radiations.

TSE pathogenesis is initiated once Mn substitutes at the vacant Cu domain on PrPc and forms a nonpathogenic, protease resistant, 'sleeping' prion. A second stage of pathogenesis comes into play once a low frequency wave of infrasonic shock metamorphoses the piezoelectric atomic structure of the Mn 3 component of the prion, thereby 'priming' the sleeping prion into its fully fledged, pathogenic TSE isoform - where the paramagnetic status of the Mn 3 atom is transformed into a stable ferrimagnetic lattice work, due to the strong electron-phonon coupling resulting from the dynamic 'Jahn-Teller' type distortions of the oxygen octahedra specific to the trivalent Mn species.

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translation: stage 1: introduce the 'sleeping' prion.

stage 2: "prime" the sleeping prion into a "fully fledged, pathogenic TSE isoform"

~

...The so called 'infectivity' of the prion is a misnomer and should be correctly defined as the contagious field inducing capacity of the ferrimagnetic Mn 3 component of the prion; which remains pathogenic at all temperatures below the 'curie point'.

A progressive domino-like 'metal to ligand to metal' ferrimagnetic corruption of the conduits of electromagnetic superexchange is initiated.

The TSE diseased brain can be likened to a solar charged battery on continuous charge; where the Mn contaminated/Cu depleted circadian-auditory pathways absorb and pile up, rather than conduct the vital life force energies of incoming ultra violet, acoustic and geomagnetic radiation.

Instead of harnessing these energies for the body's own bio-rhythmic requirements, an infrasonic shock induced metamorphosis of the Mn atom intervenes; initiating an explosive pathogenesis that perverts the healthy pathways of darkness and light; Cu prions are replaced by hyperpolarized Mn 3 prions that seed self perpetuating 'cluster bombs' of free radical mediated neurodegeneration. TSE ensues.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12699706

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oscar?

are the bad guys really doing this?

invariably fatal
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Re: Operation Cloverleaf and other evils

Post by zone on Thu May 03, 2012 10:20 pm



Fig 1 ¬ In this chart we see that barium is 278x the toxic limit, copper is 98x the toxic limit, manganese is a staggering 5,820x the toxic limit and zinc is 593x the toxic limit Noteworthy here is that manganese is an element commonly found in the environment and soil in small quantities. However, manganese is also a toxic element.
This element is the black electrolyte material found in batteries (dry cell types) before the advent of alkaline batteries took over the battery market. Manganese is still used in cheap batteries and commonly provided with remote controls. Barium, copper and zinc are also heavy metals. Copper and zinc are used by the human body's metabolism but only in very small amounts. Barium is a common contrast agent used for X-ray diagnostic imaging, but it is not used in powder form. It is suspended in a liquid form for contrast enhancement of X-rays to outline digestive tract soft tissue.
Barium and aluminum (more on aluminum later) are commonly found in chemtrail fallout.




Fig. 3 ¬ Here aluminum is a staggering 6,400x the toxic limit, iron is 28,000x the toxic limit, magnesium is 5.3x the toxic limit, potassium is 793x the toxic limit and sodium is 15.9x the toxic limit.
SPECIAL TEST RESULTS FOR ALUMINUM
According to the reader providing the data, for unknown reasons aluminum results are commonly provided by an "out of state test lab." It's also interesting that of all the contaminants, aluminum had the highest reading of all metals over the safe toxic limit by 6,400x. I will not comment here on my opinion as to who may run that lab or the data source, but will leave that to the reader's imagination.
As bad as aluminum being 6,400 times the toxic limit it may also be that the actual level of aluminum is far higher than what we see here. Although physically lighter in weight than steel or other metals, aluminum is still considered a heavy metal. Like Teflon®, aluminum is very difficult to remove from the human body. It is also well known that for unknown reasons, aluminum has been found in higher than normal concentrations in the brains of deceased Alzheimer's patients.
It is also known that Alzheimer's disease is on the rise. Perhaps finally a connection can be made here as to the source of the illness, but more science would need to be done to confirm this. A correlation between aluminum levels in the air for various cities and Alzheimer's statistics needs to be made.
This is outside the scope of this report. Clearly, there must be a source for these very high levels of heavy metals in the Phoenix environment. It could very well be a direct result of chemtrail spraying, since the trails have been commonly seen in the sky over Phoenix and other cities. If these levels are elevated in Phoenix's air, it may stand to reason that the same problem is happening all over the country elsewhere.
It's quite possible that these various metals are elevated in different amounts in the air over other cities. More tests like this are needed for other cities, with air sampling and analysis performed in the exact same way to allow proper correlation.
FUTURE TEST RESULTS
I strongly suspect that once this report is public and those behind the chemtrail spraying see this, obtaining similar laboratory tests in the future may become more difficult. A cover-up may even take place if certain corporate or government interests are threatened by this revelation.
Anyone having similar air tests performed by a laboratory in the future should stay at the test lab for as long as it takes, and watch the test results as they are obtained from start to finish. If they will not permit this then find another reputable laboratory. Leaving the laboratory and returning for the report, or accepting an email of the test results is not wise.
It may result in altered or lost test results. These lab tests could serve as a rough guide as what to expect from air tests in other cities. For example, if aluminum or barium levels are stated as near normal for lab tests of air in other large cities, those results should be suspect.
I would not recommend that an entire air filter be given to any one test lab, but rather carefully collected samples that have not touched by human hands from the filter. Laboratories only need very small samples to complete an analysis. This will allow the tests to be performed by other laboratories in the event of suspect results.
If anyone is interested in air collection details such as flow rate in cubic feet per minute, air filter size or other details to duplicate this test, I will try to provide them.
Ted Twietmeyer www.data4science.net tedtw@frontiernet.net
Comment From Kimberly Dawley National Institute of Health / PubMed indexed for Medline Mark Purdey
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?md=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=15082100&query_hl=2
1: Med Hypotheses. 2004;62(5):746-54. Links Chronic barium intoxication disrupts sulphated proteoglycan synthesis: a hypothesis for the origins of multiple sclerosis.
High level contamination by natural and industrial sources of the alkali earth metal, barium (Ba) has been identified in the ecosystems/workplaces that are associated with high incidence clustering of multiple sclerosis (MS) and other neurodegenerative diseases such as the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
Analyses of ecosystems supporting the most renowned MS clusters in Saskatchewan, Sardinia, Massachusetts, Colorado, Guam, NE Scotland demonstrated consistently elevated levels of Ba in soils (mean: 1428 ppm) and vegetation (mean: 74 ppm) in relation to mean levels of 345 and 19 ppm recorded in MS-free regions adjoining. The high levels of Ba stemmed from local quarrying for Ba ores and/or use of Ba in paper/foundry/welding/textile/oil and gas well related industries, as well as from the use of Barium as an atmospheric aerosol spray for enhancing/refracting the signaling of radio/radar waves along military jet flight paths, missile test ranges, etc. "an atmospheric aerosol spray for enhancing/refracting the signaling of radio/radar waves along military jet flight paths, missile test ranges, etc. "
http://chemtruth.ning.com/profiles/blogs/chemtrail-spray-tested

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moved from "Oscar?"

Post by zone on Wed May 09, 2012 10:24 am

zone wrote:i have a few hours this morning before surgery and am distracting myself by posting to counter your ridiculous assertions (or lack thereof) on chemtrails and 9-11.....ok?

~



okay.
the assumption being the US gov't is honest about much of anything.
you can believe anything on PUBMED is probably bunk, since the US gov't remains unconvinced that such information is either true or not true.

you can deny that PUBMED is a cooperative venture between the bigMed complex and gov't. you can deny the USA is currently a fascist state. i don't care, relly, since you're either deceving or ill-informed.



i see.
please cite your sources. thank you.

carrying on...let's put barium to the side for a moment. let's talk about sulphur.





Oscar:
do you know who/what The Royal Society is?

what do you make of their thesis that man (CO2) is responsible for global warming?

have you done enough research to determine if global warming really even exists?

why do these 'scientists' continually talk about global/geo engineering if they aren't doing it or don't plan to? do they like the idea of "fake clouds"?

"Fake clouds among ideas in Royal Society papers"

~

Extreme and risky action the only way to tackle global warming, say scientists· Geo-engineering 'better than doing nothing'

· Fake clouds among ideas in Royal Society papers

David Adam, environment correspondent
The Guardian, Monday 1 September 2008

They call for more research on geo-engineering options to cool the Earth, such as dumping massive quantities of iron into oceans to boost plankton growth, and seeding artificial clouds over oceans to reflect sunlight back into space.

Writing the introduction to a special collection of scientific papers on the subject, published today by the Royal Society, Brian Launder of the University of Manchester and Michael Thompson of the University of Cambridge say: "While such geoscale interventions may be risky, the time may well come when they are accepted as less risky than doing nothing."

Martin Rees, president of the Royal Society, said: "It's not clear which of these geo-engineering technologies might work, still less what environmental and social impacts they might have, or whether it could ever be prudent or politically acceptable to adopt any of them. But it is worth devoting effort to clarifying both the feasibility and any potential downsides of the various options. None of these technologies will provide a 'get out of jail free card' and they must not divert attention away from efforts to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases."

http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2008/sep/01/climatechange.scienceofclimatechange2

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Geoengineering wiki

Alternatively, solar radiation management techniques (SRM),[2] 'Reflective Approaches' (RA), [6] do not reduce greenhouse gas concentrations, and can only address the warming effects of carbon dioxide and other gases; they cannot address problems such as ocean acidification, which are expected as a result of rising carbon dioxide levels. Examples of proposed solar radiation management techniques include the production of stratospheric sulfur aerosols, which was suggested by Paul Crutzen,[7] space mirrors, and cloud reflectivity enhancement. Most techniques have at least some side effects.





Cloud reflectivity modification is a proposed process of altering clouds to make them more or less reflective, in order to change their effect on climate.

Synoptic cirrus clouds may be capable of modification to reduce their lifetime and hence their net positive radiative forcing (opposite to the low-cloud scheme), using seeding mechanisms distributed by airliners.[26] It is believed that the synoptic cirrus in the upper troposphere are formed by homogeneous nucleation, resulting in large numbers of small ice crystals. If ice nuclei are introduced into this environment, the cirrus may instead form by heterogeneous nucleation. If the concentration of ice nuclei is tuned such that the resulting cloud particle density is less than for the natural case, the cloud particles should grow larger due to less water vapor competition and attain higher settling velocities. The net effect should be a reduced optical thickness for outgoing infrared radiation and a reduced cloud lifetime. The effects of this modification on the cloud radiative balance operate in different manner from that of the marine stratocumulus cloud brightening scheme. Instead of increasing the incoming shortwave reflectivity and lifetime of the cloud in order to increase the net radiative cooling effect, the outgoing infrared reflectivity and lifetime are reduced thereby decreasing the net radiative heating effect of cirrus. This authors claim that this scheme is sufficient to reverse the warming caused by a doubling of CO2.
wiki



oscar: are mainstream 'scientific' communities either actually carrying out, or planning to carry out cloud seeding....by using airliners?

does it logically follow that what is discharged by the airliners is not water vapour, but is a chemical cocktail intended to alter natural processes?
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Re: Operation Cloverleaf and other evils

Post by zone on Wed May 09, 2012 10:31 am

Cloud reflectivity modification
HadGAM1 general circulation modelA study by Jones, Latham, and Smith using the Hadley Center's General Cirulation Model, suggests that warming due to a x2 increase in CO2 could potentially be compensated for by a doubling of the droplet concentration number in low-level marine stratocumulus clouds, accounting for anthropogenic aersol production, in three regions—off the coasts of the Americas and West Africa. The three regions combined cover approximately 3% of the Earths surface.[5]

[edit] Model of marine stratocumulus clouds developed by Bower, Jones and ChoulartonBower, Jones and Choularton created a model to analyze the effectiveness of albedo modification on clouds.[6] A 2006 study simplified the model.[7] Their model illustrates the practically of the technique. It demonstrates droplet size is not of that much importance, that location of clouds is of limited importance, and that significant cooling can be achieved with a level of .03.[7]

By modifying the reflectivity of clouds, the albedo of the Earth would be altered. The intention is that this technique, in combination with greenhouse gas emissions reduction (and possibly other geoengineering techniques) will be sufficient to control global warming. The effect is expected to be fully reversible, as the cloud condensation nuclei particles precipitate naturally. However, like any planetary-scale project dealing with the complex climate system, there is a non-trivial risk of unintended consequences.

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Re: Operation Cloverleaf and other evils

Post by zone on Wed May 09, 2012 10:51 am

Geo-engineering: The radical ideas to combat global warming

Artificial clouds and creating colossal blooms of oceanic algae are among the ideas scientists say must now be considered


Alok Jha, science correspondent
guardian.co.uk, Mon 1 Sep 2008 09.54 BST


One approach is to insert "scatterers" into the stratosphere. Caldeira cites an idea to deploy jumbo jets into the upper atmosphere and deposit clouds of tiny particles there, such as sulphur dioxide. Dispersing around 1m tonnes of sulphur dioxide per year across 10m square kilometres of the atmosphere would be enough to reflect away sufficient amounts of sunlight....

...The idea of engineering on a planetary scale in a bid to control climate has been around for more than 50 years but, to date, has remained on the fringes:P . The potential for dramatic and beneficial change has hitherto been outweighed by the risk of unexpected side-effects in the complex climate system, with global consequences.

Now, in a special edition of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, climate scientists and engineers have brought together the latest research and issued a call for a far-reaching assessment of a raft of geo-engineering techniques.

"We are now, or soon will be, confronting issues of whether, when and how to engineer a climate that is more to our liking," argues Ken Caldeira, a leading climate scientist based at the Carnegie Institution in Stanford, California. If a decision is made to move ahead with climate engineering, he says, then it will be essential to understand the point at which the risks and costs of geo-engineering outweigh the impacts of global warming.

http://m.guardian.co.uk/environment/2008/sep/01/climatechange.endangeredhabitats?cat=environment&type=article

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journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society

Post by zone on Wed May 09, 2012 11:05 am

journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society

...Here, we explore the effect of similar but artificially induced forcings that mimic natural radiative perturbations in order to stabilize surface climate. Injection of sulfate aerosols into the stratosphere, not unlike the effects from large volcanic eruptions, and a direct reduction of insolation, similar to total solar irradiance changes, are tested in their effectiveness to offset global mean temperature rise resulting from a business‐as‐usual scenario, thereby reducing surface temperatures to conditions associated with committed warming of a year 2000 stabilization scenario....
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Re: Operation Cloverleaf and other evils

Post by zone on Wed May 09, 2012 11:09 am



Multiple persistent contrails


In 1996, a chemtrail conspiracy theory began to circulate when the United States Air Force (USAF) was accused of "spraying the US population with mysterious substances" from aircraft "generating unusual contrail patterns."[4] The Air Force says these accusations were a hoax fueled in part by citations to a strategy paper drafted within the Air Force's Air University entitled Weather as a Force Multiplier: Owning the Weather in 2025.[10][11] The paper was presented in response to a military directive to outline a future strategic weather modification system for the purpose of maintaining the United States' military dominance in the year 2025, and identified as "fictional representations of future situations/scenarios."[11] The Air Force further clarified that the paper "does not reflect current military policy, practice, or capability," and that it is "not conducting any weather modification experiments or programs and has no plans to do so in the future."[4][12] Additionally, the Air Force states that the "'Chemtrail' hoax has been investigated and refuted by many established and accredited universities, scientific organizations, and major media publications."[4]

In Britain, when the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs was asked "what research her Department has undertaken into the polluting effects of chemtrails for aircraft", the response was that "the Department is not researching into chemtrails from aircraft as they are not scientifically recognised phenomena," but that work was being conducted to understand "how [contrails] are formed and what effects they have on the atmosphere."[5]

lol!
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Re: Operation Cloverleaf and other evils

Post by zone on Wed May 09, 2012 11:16 am

Bill Gates' cloud-whitening trials 'a dangerous experiment'Campaigners say a Bill Gates-backed geo-engineering project to whiten clouds and reduce global warming is 'risky'

Campaigners have criticised plans for a sea trial of cloud-whitening technology, funded by Microsoft founder Bill Gates.

A US-based research body, Silver Lining, which has received $300,000 from Mr Gates, is developing machines to convert seawater into microscopic particles to be sprayed into clouds. Scientists believe this will increase the whiteness, or albedo, of clouds and increase their ability to reflect more sunlight back into space, reducing global warming.

The Gates-backed sea trial would be the largest known attempt to geoengineer the climate so far, reported to be conducted over an area of 10,000km2.

However, campaigners say such a large-scale trial is 'risky' and that a global ban on geoengineering experiments should be put in place until regulations governing the sector can be introduced.

'We knew Microsoft was developing cloud applications for computers but we didn't expect this. Bill Gates and his cloud-wrenching cronies have no right to unilaterally change our seas and skies in this way,' said Jim Thomas from Canadian environmental campaigners, ETC Group.

In March, MPs from the Science and Technology Committee backed such calls and said countries should not be allowed to take unilateral action on geoengineering without consulting the UN.

A major report on the subject by The Royal Society last year also warned of the unknown side-effects of cloud-whitening, including, changes to regional weather patterns and ocean currents.

However, the report said it had advantages over other forms of geoengineering because it could be stopped immediately, and within ten days nearly all of the salt paricles would rain or settle out of the atmosphere.

It could also be used over Arctic to reduce summer ice melt, the scientists said.

http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2010/may/14/bill-gates-cloud-whitening-dangerous?INTCMP=ILCNETTXT3487

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Re: Operation Cloverleaf and other evils

Post by zone on Wed May 09, 2012 11:50 am

journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society

..................

Asilomar Scientific Organizing Committee. (2010) “The Asilomar Conference Recommendations on Principles for Research into Climate Engineering Techniques”.

Conference Report. Climate Institute. Washington DC
Open Access Article* Available at: http://climateresponsefund.org/images/Conference/finalfinalreport.pdf

Despite ongoing efforts to reduce emissions and adapt to the changing climate, global greenhouse gas emissions are far above what is required to reverse the increasing changes in atmospheric composition. In response to growing calls for research to explore the potential for climate engineering to provide additional options for responding, the Asilomar International Conference on Climate Intervention Technologies was held at the Asilomar Conference Center in California from March 22 to 26, 2010.

The conference attracted a diverse group of experts from fifteen countries on six continents. Presentations and discussions covered the two major categories of climate engineering: (a) remediation technologies, such as afforestation, carbon removal, and ocean fertilization, that attempt to reduce the causes of climate change, and so represent an extension of mitigation, and (b) intervention technologies, such as solar radiation management, that attempt to moderate the results of having altered atmospheric composition, and so represent an extension of adaptation to climate change.

To promote the responsible conduct of research on climate engineering, recommendations were made to adopt five principles: (1) climate engineering research should be aimed at promoting the collective benefit of humankind and the environment; (2) governments must clarify responsibilities for, and, when necessary, create new mechanisms for the governance and oversight of large-scale climate engineering research activities; (3) climate-engineering research should be conducted openly and cooperatively, preferably within a framework that has broad international support; (4) iterative, independent technical assessments of research progress will be required to inform the public and policymakers; and (5) public participation and consultation in research planning and oversight, assessments, and development of decision-making mechanisms and processes must be provided. The conferees concluded that expanding and continuing the discussion with an even broader set of participants will be an essential step in moving forward to explore the potential benefits, impacts, and implications of climate engineering.

http://www.cbd.int/climate/doc/geoengineering-impacts-bibliography-updated-en.doc

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are they "climate engineering"?
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Re: Operation Cloverleaf and other evils

Post by zone on Wed May 09, 2012 2:39 pm

Solar radiation management[1] (SRM) projects are a type of geoengineering which seek to reflect sunlight and thus reduce global warming.[2] Examples include the creation of stratospheric sulfur aerosols....

Reflective aerosols or dustMethods based on increasing the aerosol content in the lower stratosphere for climate modification were proposed by a Russian scientist, Budyko.[21]

United States Patent 5003186 suggested that tiny metal flakes could be "added to the fuel of jet airliners, so that the particles would be emitted from the jet engine exhaust while the airliner was at its cruising altitude."

Alternative proposals, not known to have been published in peer-reviewed journals, include the addition of silicon compounds to jet fuel to make silicon dioxide particles in the exhaust.[22]

A more sophisticated approach, using multi-layered nanoparticles (consisting of aluminum and barium titanate), was published by David Keith in 2010. He suggests utilizing the effects of photophoresis to increase the amount of time the aerosols stay airborne.[23]

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Re: Operation Cloverleaf and other evils

Post by zone on Wed May 09, 2012 2:48 pm



Few branches of science divide opinion as sharply as that championed by Professor David Keith. He's one of the pre-eminent geo-engineers striving to find new ways to combat global warming, by altering the way the sea, the clouds and the atmosphere work. This isn't a replacement, he says, for the political drive to reduce emissions. But is geo-engineering a cost-effective, emergency stop-gap, before the effects of climate change become irreversible, or a dangerous leap into the unknown?

A more sophisticated approach, using multi-layered nanoparticles (consisting of aluminum and barium titanate), was published by David Keith in 2010. He suggests utilizing the effects of photophoresis to increase the amount of time the aerosols stay airborne".

Aerosols could be injected into the upper atmosphere to engineer the climate by scattering incident sunlight so as to produce a cooling tendency that may mitigate the risks posed by the accumulation of greenhouse gases. Analysis of climate engineering has focused on sulfate aerosols. Here I examine the possibility that engineered nanoparticles could exploit photophoretic forces, enabling more control over particle distribution and lifetime than is possible with sulfates, perhaps allowing climate engineering to be accomplished with fewer side effects. The use of electrostatic or magnetic materials enables a class of photophoretic forces not found in nature.

Photophoretic levitation could loft particles above the stratosphere, reducing their capacity to interfere with ozone chemistry; and, by increasing particle lifetimes, it would reduce the need for continual replenishment of the aerosol. Moreover, particles might be engineered to drift poleward enabling albedo modification to be tailored to counter polar warming while minimizing the impact on equatorial climates.
www.pnas.org/content/early/2010/09/02/1009519107.full.pdf

~

A more sophisticated approach, using multi-layered nanoparticles (consisting of aluminum and barium titanate), was published by David Keith in 2010. He suggests utilizing the effects of photophoresis to increase the amount of time the aerosols stay airborne".

TRUE OR FALSE OSCAR?
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Re: Operation Cloverleaf and other evils

Post by zone on Wed May 09, 2012 2:57 pm

zone wrote:Solar radiation management....

United States Patent 5003186 suggested that tiny metal flakes could be "added to the fuel of jet airliners, so that the particles would be emitted from the jet engine exhaust while the airliner was at its cruising altitude."

United States Patent 5003186

Title: Stratospheric Welsbach seeding for reduction of global warming

Abstract: A method is described for reducing atmospheric or global warming resulting from the presence of heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere, i.e., from the greenhouse effect. Such gases are relatively transparent to sunshine, but absorb strongly the long-wavelength infrared radiation released by the earth. The method incudes the step of seeding the layer of heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere with particles of materials characterized by wavelength-dependent emissivity. Such materials include Welsbach materials and the oxides of metals which have high emissivity (and thus low reflectivities) in the visible and 8-12 micron infrared wavelength regions.

.....

Primary Examiner:Berman, Jack I. Attorney, Agent or Firm:Sales, Michael W.
Denson-low, Wanda


Claims: What is claimed is:

1. A method of reducing atmospheric warming due to the greenhouse effect resulting from a layer of gases in the atmosphere which absorb strongly near infrared wavelength radiation, comprising the step of dispersing tiny particles of a material within the gases' layer, the particle material characterized by wavelength-dependent emissivity or reflectivity, in that said material has high emissivities with respect to radiation in the visible and far infrared wavelength spectra, and low emissivity in the near infrared wavelength spectrum, whereby said tiny particles provide a means for converting infrared heat energy into far infrared radiation which is radiated into space.

2. The method of claim wherein said material comprises one or more of the oxides of metals.

3. The method of claim 1 wherein said material comprises aluminum oxide.

4. The method of claim 1 wherein said material comprises thorium oxide.

5. The method of claim 1 wherein said particles are dispersed by seeding the stratosphere with a quantity of said particles at altitudes in the range of seven to thirteen kilometers above the earth's surface.

6. The method of claim 1 wherein the size of said particles is in the range of ten to one hundred microns.

7. The method of claim wherein said material comprises a refractory material.

8. The method of claim 1 wherein said material is a Welsbach material.

9. The method of claim 1 wherein the number of said dispersed particles per unit area in the particle layer is greater than or equal to 1/σabs 1, where 1 is the thickness of the particle layer and σabs is the absorption coefficient of the particles at the far infrared wavelengths.

10. A method for reducing atmospheric warming due to the greenhouse effect resulting from a greenhouse gases layer, comprising the following step:
seeding the greenhouse gases' layer with a quantity of tiny particles of a material characterized by wavelength-dependent emissivity or reflectivity, in that said materials have high emissivities in the visible and far infrared wavelength spectra and low emissivity in the near infrared wavelength spectrum,

whereby said particles are suspended within said gases' layer and provide a means for converting radiative energy at near infrared wavelengths into radiation at the far infrared wavelengths, permitting some of the converted radiation to escape into space.


11. The method of claim 10 wherein said material comprises one or more of the oxides of metals.

12. The method of claim 10 wherein said material comprises aluminum oxide.

13. The method of claim 10 wherein said material is thorium oxide.

14. The method of claim 10 wherein said seeding is performed at altitudes in the range of seven to thirteen kilometers above the earth's surface.

15. The method of claim 10 wherein said material comprises a refractory material.

16. The method of claim 10 wherein said particle size is in range of ten to one hundred microns.

17. The method of claim 10 wherein said material is a Welsbach material.

18. The method of claim 10 wherein the number of said dispersed particles per unit area in the particle layer is greater than or equal to 1/σabs 1, where 1 is the thickness of the particle layer and σabs is the absorption coefficient of the particles at the far infrared wavelengths.

Description:BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION


This invention relates to a method for the reduction of global warming resulting from the greenhouse effect, and in particular to a method which involves the seeding of the earth's stratosphere with Welsbach-like materials.

Global warming has been a great concern of many environmental scientists. Scientists believe that the greenhouse effect is responsible for global warming. Greatly increased amounts of heat-trapping gases have been generated since the Industrial Revolution. These gases, such as CO2, CFC, and methane, accumulate in the atmosphere and allow sunlight to stream in freely but block heat from escaping (greenhouse effect). These gases are relatively transparent to sunshine but absorb strongly the long-wavelength infrared radiation released by the earth.

Most current approaches to reduce global warming are to restrict the release of various greenhouse gases, such as CO2, CFC, and methane. These imply the need to establish new regulations and the need to monitor various gases and to enforce the regulations.

One proposed solution to the problem of global warming involves the seeding of the atmosphere with metallic particles.

One technique proposed to seed the metallic particles was to add the tiny particles to the fuel of jet airliners, so that the particles would be emitted from the jet engine exhaust while the airliner was at its cruising altitude.

While this method would increase the reflection of visible light incident from space, the metallic particles would trap the long wavelength blackbody radiation released from the earth. This could result in net increase in global warming.

It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide a method for reduction of global warming due to the greenhouse effect which permits heat to escape through the atmosphere.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

A method is disclosed for reducing atmospheric warming due to the greenhouse effect resulting from a greenhouse gases layer. The method comprises the step of seeding the greenhouse gas layer with a quantity of tiny particles of materials characterized by wavelength-dependent emissivity or reflectivity, in that said materials have high emissivities in the visible and far infrared wavelength regions and low emissivity in the near infrared wavelength region. Such materials can include the class of materials known as Welsbach materials. The oxides of metal, e.g., aluminum oxide, are also suitable for the purpose. The greenhouse gases layer typically extends between about seven and thirteen kilometers above the earth's surface. The seeding of the stratosphere occurs within this layer. The particles suspended in the stratosphere as a result of the seeding provide a mechanism for converting the blackbody radiation emitted by the earth at near infrared wavelengths into radiation in the visible and far infrared wavelength so that this heat energy may be reradiated out into space, thereby reducing the global warming due to the greenhouse effect.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

These and other features and advantages of the present invention will become more apparent from the following detailed description of an exemplary embodiment thereof, as illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIG. 1 illustrates a model for the heat trapping phenomenon, i.e., the greenhouse effect.

FIG. 2 is a graph illustrating the intensity of sunlight incident on earth and of the earth's blackbody radiation as a function of wavelength.

FIG. 3 is a graph illustrating an ideal emissivity versus wavelength function for the desired particle material.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

FIG. 1 shows a model for the heat-trapping (greenhouse effect) phenomenon. It is assumed that the greenhouse gases are concentrated at altitudes between y=0 (at some altitude Y1, above the earth's surface) and y=1. Regardless of the sunshine reflected back into space, i1 and i2 denote the shortwavelength sunlight energies that are absorbed by the earth's surface and the greenhouse gases, respectively. Available data shows that i1 =0.45 isol and i2 =0.25 isol, where isol is the total flux from the sun. The short wavelength sunlight heats up the greenhouse gases and the earth surface, and this energy is eventually reradiated out in the long wavelength infrared region.

FIG. 2 is a graph illustrating the intensity of sunlight and the earth's blackbody radiation as a function of wavelength. As illustrated, some 30% of the sunlight energy is in the near infrared region. The earth's blackbody radiation, on the other hand, is at the far infrared wavelength.

Referring again to FIG. 1, Is, I , I-, Ig and Ie represent the fluxes in the infrared wavelength region, where Is and Ig are the fluxes reradiated by the greenhouse gases toward the sky and ground, respectively; Ie is the flux reradiated by the earth; and I and I- are fluxes within the gases radiating toward the space and ground, respectively. I and I- are functions of y, e.g., I (0) is the I flux at y=0. Considering the principles of energy conservation and continuity at boundaries, the following relationships are obtained: Is =i1 i2 (1) Is =I (1)(1-Rl) (2) I- (1)=I (1)Rl (3) I (0)=I- (0)Ro Ie (1-Ro) (4) Ig =I- (0)(1-Ro) Ie Ro (5) Ie =IBB (Te)(1-R) Ig R (6) Ie =i1 Ig (7)

where Ro, Rl and R are the reflectivities at the y=0 and y=1 boundaries and at the earth's surface. IBB (Te) is the blackbody radiation flux at the earth's temperature Te. Within the greenhouse gases' layer, the energy equations are (dI /dy)=IBB (Tg)-αI (8) -(dI- /dy)=IBB (Tg)-αI- (9)

where IBB (Tg) is the blackbody radiation flux at the greenhouse gases' temperature Tg, and α is the absorption coefficient of the gases. The solutions of equations 8 and 9 are given by equations 10 and 11: I (y)=(IBB /α) Ceαy (10) I- (y)=(IBB /α) De αy (11)

To illustrate the effects of Ro and Rl on the green-house effect, the extreme case is considered wherein a high concentration of greenhouse gases has strong absorption in the infrared region; that is, for y=1, e-αl approaches 0. Then, using Equations 3 and 4, the relationships of Equations 12 and 13 are obtained. C=(Ie -(IBB /α))(1-Ro) (12) D=0

From Equations 5 and 7, Ie =i1 I- (0)(1-Ro) Ie Ro,

or Ie =(i1 /(1-Ro)) (IBB /α). (14)

From Equations 2 and 1, Is =(IBB /α)(1-Rl)=i1 i2,

or (IBB /α)=(i1 i2)/(1-Rl). (15)

Combining Equations 14 and 15, the relationship of Equation 16 is obtained. Ie =i1 /(1-Ro) (i1 i2)/(1-Rl)(16)

Finally, Equation 6 gives the blackbody radiation from the earth's surface in terms of i1 and i2 and the three reflectivities: Ie =IBB (Te)(1-R) (Ie -i1)R IBB (Te)=Ie (R/(1-R))i1

or IBB (Te)=i1 /(1-Ro) (i1 i2)/(1-Rl) (R/(1-R))i1 (17)

To achieve a lower temperature of the earth, (considering i1, i2 and R as constants), it is desirable to make R and Rl as small as possible.

Known refractory materials have a thermal emissivity function which is strongly wavelength dependent. For example, the materials may have high emissivity (and absorption) at the far infrared wavelengths, high emissivity in the visible wavelength range, and very low emissivity at intermediate wavelengths. If a material having those emissivity characteristics and a black body are exposed to IR energy of equal intensity, the selective thermal radiator will emit visible radiation with higher efficiency (if radiation cooling predominates), i.e., the selective thermal radiator will appear brighter than the black body. This effect is known as the Welsbach effect and is extensively used in commercial gas lantern mantles.

Welsbach materials have the characteristic of wavelength-dependent emissivity (or reflectivity). For example, thorium oxide (ThO2) has high emissivities in the visible and far IR regions but it has low emissivity in the near IR region. So, in accordance with the invention, the layer of greenhouse gases is seeded with Welsbach or Welsbach-like materials which have high emissivities (and thus low reflectivities) in the visible and 8-12 micrometer infrared regions, which has the effect of reducing Ro and Rl while introducing no effect in the visible range.

A desired material for the stratospheric seeding has a reflection coefficient close to unity for near IR radiation, and a reflection coefficient close to zero (or emissity close to unity) for far IR radiation. FIG. 3 is a graph illustrating an ideal emissivity versus wavelength function for the desired material. Another class of materials having the desired property includes the oxides of metals. For example, aluminum oxide (Al2 O3) is one metal oxide suitable for the purpose and which is relatively inexpensive.

It is presently believed that particle sizes in the ten to one hundred micron range would be suitable for the seeding purposes. Larger particles would tend to settle to the earth more quickly.

The particles in the required size range can be obtained with conventional methods of grinding and meshing.

It is believed that the number of particles nd per unit area in the particle layer should be defined by Equation 18: nd 1≥1/σabs (18)

where 1 is the thickness of the particle layer and σabs is the absorption coefficient of the particles at the long IR wavelengths. One crude estimate of the density of particles is given by Equation (19): nd 1≥(cmw)/(4πe2) (19)

where c is the speed of light, m is the average particle mass, e is the electron charge, and w is the absorption line width in sec-1.

The greenhouse gases are typically in the earth's stratosphere at an altitude of seven to thirteen kilometers. This suggests that the particle seeding should be done at an altitude on the order of 10 kilometers. The particles may be seeded by dispersal from seeding aircraft; one exemplary technique may be via the jet fuel as suggested by prior work regarding the metallic particles. Once the tiny particles have been dispersed into the atmosphere, the particles may remain in suspension for up to one year.

It is understood that the above-described embodiment is merely illustrative of the possible specific embodiments which may represent principles of the present invention. Other arrangements may readily be devised in accordance with these principles by those skilled in the art without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention.

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/5003186.html





One technique proposed to seed the metallic particles was to add the tiny particles to the fuel of jet airliners, so that the particles would be emitted from the jet engine exhaust while the airliner was at its cruising altitude.

Once the tiny particles have been dispersed into the atmosphere, the particles may remain in suspension for up to one year.



TRUE OR FALSE OSCAR?
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Re: Operation Cloverleaf and other evils

Post by Strangelove on Wed May 09, 2012 4:47 pm



Picture: Oscar remains unconvinced. [Reuters Image]

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Re: Operation Cloverleaf and other evils

Post by zone on Thu May 10, 2012 2:32 pm

ARMY RESEARCH LABORATORY


3-D Holographic Display Using
Strontium Barium Niobate



by Christy A. Heid, Brian P. Ketchel, Gary L. Wood,
Richard J. Anderson, and Gregory J. Salamo
ARL-TR-1520 February 1998


Abstract
An innovative technique for generating a three-dimensional holographic
display using strontium barium niobate (SBN) is discussed. The resultant
image is a hologram that can be viewed in real time over a wide perspective
or field of view (FOV). The holographic image is free from system-induced
aberrations and has a uniform, high quality over the entire FOV. The
enhanced image quality results from using a phase-conjugate read beam
generated from a second photorefractive crystal acting as a double-pumped
phase-conjugate mirror (DPPCM). Multiple three-dimensional images have
been stored in the crystal via wavelength multiplexing.

http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA338490&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf

...

Serge Monast: Project Bluebeam
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Re: Operation Cloverleaf and other evils

Post by zone on Wed May 30, 2012 10:41 pm

World’s Scariest Drug: The Devil’s Breath


While it is occasionally used recreationally for its hallucinogenic properties, the experiences are often extremely mentally and physically unpleasant, and frequently physically dangerous.

Ryan Duffy went to Colombia to check out a strange and powerful drug called Scopolamine, also known as “The Devil’s Breath.”

It’s a substance so intense that it renders a person incapable of exercising free will.

The first few days in the country were a harrowing montage of freaked-out dealers and unimaginable horror stories about Scopolamine.

After meeting only a few people with firsthand experience, the story took a far darker turn than we ever could have imagined....

VIDEO

http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/worlds-scariest-drug/


....

MIAMI CANNIBAL

Miami police: "It was not only grotesque, it was just very sad, the amount of blood"

A man who was shot dead in Miami at the weekend after he was found biting the face off another naked man has been identified by police.

Rudy Eugene, 31, reportedly growled at a police officer after he was warned to back away.

A witness said the aggressor continued to eat the victim, before the officer opened fire several times, killing him.

The attack next to a busy road on Saturday afternoon has been linked to a potent drug known as "bath salts"....

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-18241494

...




Drug Turns Crime Victims Into Zombies

By Phil Stewart


BOGOTA, Colombia (Reuters) - The last thing Andrea Fernandez recalls before being drugged is holding her newborn baby on a Bogota city bus.
Police found her three days later, muttering to herself and wandering topless along the median strip of a busy highway. Her face was badly beaten and her son was gone.
Fernandez is just one of hundreds of victims every month who, according to Colombian hospitals, are temporarily turned into zombies by a home-grown drug called scopolamine which has been embraced by thieves and rapists.

...............

are they going to spray this on us?

all the articles make a real point of saying how its sprayed onto people, with no way of them ever knowing.

oh my God help us.

all the zombie preconditioning, Hunger Games etc?

"It’s a substance so intense that it renders a person incapable of exercising free will."

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Re: Operation Cloverleaf and other evils

Post by zone on Wed May 30, 2012 10:49 pm

...The following is another excerpt from Ann Blake Tracy's book. "The CIA had a great interest in drugs for chemical warfare and mind control in particular. After several years of using Scopolamine and liquid marijuana, they began searching for additional, even stronger mind altering drugs and turned to LSD. Their goal was to find a chemical which would: 1. cause a disruption in memory, 2. discredit individuals by producing aberant behavior, 3. alter sexual patterns, 4. elicit information from the person, 5. open one's mind to suggestion for mind control, and 6. create addiction and dependence. If the reader will turn to the chapter entitled "Patient Reports", they will find those on Prozac reporting all six of these results as reactions to the drug."

Many of us who are aware of what is really happening in our society, concerning chemtrails, the push for One World Government, etc., try to warn others. We have been very puzzled and frustrated at the general lack of concern. Most people just don't seem to care and change the subject when presented with this information.

There are many methods of producing apathy....through propaganda, subliminal messages, specific electronic frequencies, chemicals, and more. Could the use of antidepressents be playing a role in the zombification of our nation? A book published by Stanford University in 1983 "On Nineteen Eighty Four", extensively explains how these chemicals erode our identities and it's devastating effects on society as a whole. Many report that these drugs affect one's ability to connect spiritually. Patients on Prozac report that it rips out one's soul....

http://www.rense.com/general43/motive.htm

WELL...I GUESS THAT'S WHAT THEY'RE ALREADY DOING...and have been for a long time.



btw OSCAR enoz is a lousy name. i can still read backwards.
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Re: Operation Cloverleaf and other evils

Post by zone on Wed May 30, 2012 10:51 pm

PDF Download:

Porton Note No 188 18 August 1959 - here

Porton Field Report No 515 13 Nov 1957 - here

Porton Note No 74 Extract 13 November 1957 - here

DOC Porton Field Trial Report No 610 The Penetration Of Built Up areas at night - 1963 experiment - here

CDEE Porton Programme Report 2 64 The Penetration of Built Up Areas By Aerosols At Night PDF file - here

MOD Internal Review re Zinc Cadmium Sulphide FP public area experiments - here

DOC Porton Note No 188 The Long Distance Travel of Particulate C - here

DOC Secretary of State Briefing Memo Public Area CW BW Experiments May 1963 - here

See also Biological Warfare Experiments in Dorset 1963-75

How the spraying was done

This declassified Porton Down film, which is Crown Copyright, shows a Valetta aircraft making a number of passes in front of the camera - all the time spraying the Biological Warfare simulant - Zinc Cadmium sulphide. These experiments shown in this film were conducted during March 1958, and were conducted to determine the characteristics of an aircraft mounted Zinc Cadmium sulphide dispenser. The resulting information was then used in Porton Down's later public area BW experiments, some of which (the Large Area Coverage or LAC) contaminated vast swathes of the UK. A BW simulant is a supposedly harmless substance which mimics the physical properties of a real BW agent, in this case, size (between 1-5 microns). BW simulants are used in BW experiments in which, for safety reasons, a real BW agent could not be used....

http://www.nr23.net/govt/spray.htm

...
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Re: Operation Cloverleaf and other evils

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